Getting the feel of a garden




   We are honored to have Karen Wolfgang back as a guest blogger.  She operates the business Independence Gardens PDX.  Her first article focused on all of the benefits of starting your own garden. If you have not had the chance to read the post, I would highly recommend it. This next article takes us on a journey of the simple nature of being connected with your own hideaway.  The article is a simple, pure and a powerful piece. 


I hope that you sometimes find yourself, as I am doing right now, simply thinking “ooh, I’m so lucky!” My garden is one of the many things in my life that makes me feel that way, and I’m writing to explain why.

First of all, I derive a lot of pleasure from many of the elements of my garden for which I am in no way responsible. The previous gardener was all about bulbs: raucous ornamentals that magically appear in the spring and interact with each other in unexpected ways, keeping me on my toes and wondering how DID she do it? I am fascinated. I am enormously entertained by the flowers themselves, the foliage, the accidental(?) juxtapositions–and, of course, by the bees and other critters that come to visit them. I am observing: I am a little too ADD to watch a single bumblebee for more than a few seconds, but I do see it, and I appreciate it, and its erratic flight pattern makes me smile. And then, every once in a while, the way the leaves of the maple move in the slightest breeze catches my attention, and although my eyes don’t always linger, the image sticks in my brain. Continue reading

Oregon Constitution – Bill of Rights 1-25


This information comes directly from



Sec.     1.         Natural rights inherent in people

2.         Freedom of worship

3.         Freedom of religious opinion

4.         No religious qualification for office

5.         No money to be appropriated for religion

6.         No religious test for witnesses or jurors

7.         Manner of administering oath or affirmation

8.         Freedom of speech and press

9.         Unreasonable searches or seizures

10.       Administration of justice

11.       Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecution

12.       Double jeopardy; compulsory self-incrimination

13.       Treatment of arrested or confined persons

14.       Bailable offenses

15.       Foundation principles of criminal law

16.       Excessive bail and fines; cruel and unusual punishments; power of jury in criminal case

17.       Jury trial in civil cases

18.       Private property or services taken for public use

19.       Imprisonment for debt

20.       Equality of privileges and immunities of citizens

21.       Ex-post facto laws; laws impairing contracts; laws depending on authorization in order to take effect; laws submitted to electors

22.       Suspension of operation of laws

23.       Habeas corpus

24.       Treason

25.       Corruption of blood or forfeiture of estate

Continue reading

Preamble to the Oregon Constitution


The following information comes directly from



 The Oregon Constitution was framed by a convention of 60 delegates chosen by the people. The convention met on the third Monday in August 1857 and adjourned on September 18 of the same year. On November 9, 1857, the Constitution was approved by the vote of the people of Oregon Territory. The Act of Congress admitting Oregon into the Union was approved February 14, 1859, and on that date the Constitution went into effect.


The Constitution is here published as it is in effect following the approval of amendments and revisions on May 18, 2010, and November 2, 2010. The text of the original signed copy of the Constitution filed in the office of the Secretary of State is retained unless it has been repealed or superseded by amendment or revision. Where the original text has been amended or revised or where a new provision has been added to the original Constitution, the source of the amendment, revision or addition is indicated in the source note immediately following the text of the amended, revised or new section. Notations also have been made setting out the history of repealed sections. Continue reading

The Bill of Rights 11 – 27


The information comes from The U.S. National Archives & Records Administration.

The Constitution: Amendments 11-27

Constitutional Amendments 1-10 make up what is known as The Bill of Rights.
Amendments 11-27 are listed below.


Passed by Congress March 4, 1794. Ratified February 7, 1795.

Note: Article III, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by amendment 11.

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.


Passed by Congress December 9, 1803. Ratified June 15, 1804.

Note: A portion of Article II, section 1 of the Constitution was superseded by the 12th amendment.

The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate; — the President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted; — The person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. [And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. --]* The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States.

*Superseded by section 3 of the 20th amendment. Continue reading